CBD Research

Objective, unbiased references on CBD with clickable links to peer-reviewed scientific papers concerning the potential medicinal benefits of CBD.


Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants

Hampson , et al.  “Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.” Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 6,630,507.

Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention.

A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users

Corroon, Jamie, and Joy A. Phillips. “A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users.” Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, vol. 3, no. 1, 1 Apr. 2018, pp. 152–161., doi:10.1089/can.2018.0006.

Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) found has broad therapeutic value. Consumers are using CBD as a specific therapy for multiple diverse medical conditions—particularly pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders.


Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients.

Bergamaschi, Mateus M, et al. “Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients.” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 36, no. 6, 9 May 2011, pp. 1219–1226., doi:10.1038/npp.2011.6.

Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals.


Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in -amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-B involvement

Esposito, Giuseppe, et al. “Cannabidiol Inhibits Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in β-Amyloid Stimulated PC12 Neurons through p38 MAP Kinase and NF-ΚB Involvement.” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 399, no. 1-2, 15 May 2006, pp. 91–95., doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.01.047.

We have previously shown that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component from Cannabis sativa, possess a variegate combination of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects that protect PC12 cells from Aβ toxicity.


Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders

Campos, Alline C., et al. “Cannabidiol, Neuroprotection and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Pharmacological Research, vol. 112, Oct. 2016, pp. 119–127., doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2016.01.033.

CBD attenuates brain damage associated with neurodegenerative and/or ischemic conditions. It also has positive effects on attenuating psychotic-, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, CBD affects synaptic plasticity and facilitates neurogenesis.

Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxiceischemic newborn pigs: Role of 5HT1A and CB2 receptors

Pazos, M. Ruth, et al. “Mechanisms of Cannabidiol Neuroprotection in Hypoxic–Ischemic Newborn Pigs: Role of 5HT1A and CB2 Receptors.” Neuropharmacology, vol. 71, Jan. 2013, pp. 282–291., doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.03.027.

CBD administration after HI in newborn piglets resulted in robust neuroprotection.

Oxidative Stress

Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress

Booz, George W. “Cannabidiol as an Emergent Therapeutic Strategy for Lessening the Impact of Inflammation on Oxidative Stress.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 5, 2011, pp. 1054–1061., doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.007.

This review discusses recent studies suggesting that cannabidiol may have utility in treating a number of human diseases and disorders now known to involve activation of the immune system and associated oxidative stress, as a contributor to their etiology and progression. These include rheumatoid arthritis, types 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, depression, and neuropathic pain.

Contrasting protective effects of cannabinoids against oxidative stress and amyloid-b evoked neurotoxicity in vitro

Harvey, Benjamin S., et al. “Contrasting Protective Effects of Cannabinoids against Oxidative Stress and Amyloid-β Evoked Neurotoxicity in Vitro.” NeuroToxicology, vol. 33, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 138–146., doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2011.12.015.

In this study we compared the effects of CB1 and CB2 receptor-selective ligands, the endocannabinoid anandamide and the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol, against oxidative stress and the toxic hallmark Alzheimer’s protein, β-amyloid (Aβ) in neuronal cell lines.


Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature

Babson, Kimberly A., et al. “Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature.” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 19, no. 4, 2017, doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0775-9.

Preliminary research into cannabis and insomnia suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of insomnia.



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